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(1) Della Robbias FN America, 1912. (2) Luca della Robbia, 1914. (3) Robbia Heraldry, 1919. (4) Gio- 
vanni DELLA Robbia, 1920. (5) Benedetto and Santi Buglioni, 1921. (6) Andrea Della Robbia and 
HIS Atelier, 1922. By Allan Marquand. 4°, Illustrated. Princeton, Princeton University Press. 

One of several reasons for the frequent and justifiable practice of describing our age 
as Alexandrian is that we have applied ourselves to the business of criticism. The com- 
parison is often made in a somewhat derogatory sense, with the insinuation that critical 
interests imply lack of creative power and are the concern of less vigorous imaginations. 
Our own epoch, as well as the Alexandrian period from which it has taken its appellation, 
stands in need of rehabilitation. It is high time that the claims of criticism to recognition 
as a product of creative intellect be reasserted and that constructive research be considered 
a suitable exercise for an enlightened mind. The tremendous achievements in this field of 
the centuries immediately preceding the birth of Christ deserve once again their proper 
appraisement, and even we ourselves may begin to entertain a legitimate pride in the 
similar attainments of the present day. The series of books here under review must 
certainly be placed in the category of worthy objects for such pride. The results of the 
last decades in literary criticism are at least generally realized, if not rightly esteemed; 
the results in the criticism of art are as yet known only to a small circle, consisting chiefly 
of the scholars themselves, and have failed to receive an appreciation in any way 
commensurate with their importance. 

The undertaking that awaited, in our day, the students of the history of art was 
analogous to that which presented itself to the Alexandrian age, and the author of this 
momentous series of monographs. Professor Marquand, has been one of the pioneers in 
the assumption and performance of the task. The Alexandrian scholars accomplished 
the sacred duty of interpreting, systematizing, and coordinating the enormous mass of 
supreme literature bequeathed to them by the Greek world of the earlier centuries; in 
the process it was necessary to sift out the spurious from the authentic and thus to safe- 
guard for posterity the pure canon of Hellenic prose and poetry. Those who set themselves 
in the nineteenth century to the investigation of art were confronted with an equally 
confused accumulation of objects produced by the great epochs of the past. The under- 
standing and proper evaluation of this artistic heritage were vitiated by an accretion of 
legends and false attributions and by an absence of definition and classification. The 
knowledge of the history of art was, indeed, little better than a chaos, by bringing order 
out of which our scholars have gained the right to be called creative. By laborious 
examination of detail, often no more interesting to the investigator than to the superficial 
public that makes easy mock of it, they have separated imitations and forgeries from 
genuine works. Starting from these facts rather than from vague speculation, they have 
then sought to discover and point out the real beauties of the masters, and have thus 
clearly defined their personalities. By connecting each artist with his predecessors and 
contemporaries, they have brought into relief the influences under which he developed 
and lived. By the drudgery of search for documents and of careful scrutiny of their 
contents, they have established the facts of biography and chronological development. 
By comparison of aesthetic evolution in one country with that of another, they have 

42 The College Aet Association of America 

outlined the universal characteristics of each period and at the same time have discerned 
persistent national traits in the output of the several peoples. By broadening their scope 
to include history and literature, they have set the arts in their proper relation to 
civilization and have thus clarified the general cultural conception of every epoch. In a 
word, by the application of the modern historical method to their subject, they have laid a 
firm foundation of ascertained truth, upon which the enjoyment of art and the philosophic 
study of sesthetics may now be the more securely based. 

It is with these principles of modern criticism in mind that Professor Marquand has 
devoted himself to the study of the Delia Robbia. Certainly no field in the whole prospect 
of art was more sorely in need of clarification or involved knottier questions. One has 
only to look into old guidebooks or into the catalogues of collections of photographs 
compiled not more than a score of years ago to realize the confusion which reigned in 
ascriptions to the various members of the family and which was occasioned by a com- 
parative similarity of style, by the fact that they all used the peculiar medium of glazed 
terracotta, and by the existence of a great number of imitators who were called into being 
by the phenomenal popularity of the Delia Robbia ware. But here was only the beginning 
of difficulties. There was the forbidding largeness of the subject, since, even if the author 
had been content to confine himself to a single figure of the workship, such as Luca della 
Robbia, he could not have treated him adequately without bringing at least one or two 
of the others into the consideration for the sake of comparison and differentiation. Having 
once elected to comprise the whole dynasty and their corthge in his investigation, Professor 
Marquand multiplied for himself the perplexities of dates, documents, and origins, and 
already in 1912, in the book on Della Robbias in America, he was cognizant of the problem 
of a rival workshop, which he afterward solved in 1921 in the volume on Benedetto and 
Santi Buglioni. The compensation for the difficulty of the enterprise must have been the 
alluring beauty of the objects with which he has had to deal and the consciousness that he 
was performing the precious service of creating for them a more intelligent appreciation. 

The plan and mechanism of each volume are such as to achieve the most lucid 
presentation of the material. In each of the four books that have to do with definite 
individualities, there is an introduction which traces the biography with scientific accuracy, 
discusses briefly but penetratingly the style and attainments of the master in question, 
and includes the documents apposite to his life and development. The volumes on the 
Buglioni and on Andrea della Robbia are enriched at this point by comprehensive, clearly 
arranged, and invaluable genealogical trees of both Benedetto and Santi Buglioni and 
of the whole Della Robbia family. The earliest work, Delia Robbias in America, does 
not call for such an introduction, but the book on heraldry begins with a general discussion 
of the treatment of shields, garlands, and inscriptions by the workshop. The main body 
of each volume is a catalogue raisonne of the production of the artist or artists in question 
or of the group of objects indicated by the title. Scholarly completeness is carried even 
to the point of introducing notices of works that are no longer extant. Each entry, as a 
rule accompanied by a satisfactory and often an excellent illustration, comprises, in welcome 
fullness, a detailed description of the object, even of its color-scheme, a comparison with 
analogous works by the same sculptor, an account of its vicissitudes, an indication of the 
other works by which it has been influenced, a specification of its relationship to con- 
temporary history and historical personages, a discussion of the attribution, and a similar 
keen analysis of any other significant matters of interest; finally, documents of special 
bearing are retained for quotation at the conclusions of the articles upon the separate 
works with which they have to do, and it is here also that each object receives its exhaustive 

The Art Bulletin 43 

bibliography, except in Delia Robbias in America, where the references appear at the 
bottom of the pages. The entries are ordinarily and conveniently arranged in groups 
according to the decades of the master's development. In the books on Giovanni della 
Robbia and on the Buglioni the works in the manner of the master are placed in the same 
decades with the productions by his own hand; in the monographs on Luca and Andrea 
della Robbia they are set separately at the end, in the case of Andrea requiring a second 
volume. The book on Della Robbias in America disposes the entries under the headings 
of the different members of the family; that on heraldry adopts a succession according to 
date, which means a general arrangement according to artists, except where the activities 
of the ateliers of Andrea and Giovanni della Robbia and of the Buglioni overlap. Each 
member of the series, with the exception of Della Robbias in America, concludes with a 
general bibliography, which catalogues the abbreviations employed for the many publica- 
tions mentioned in the body of the text, but which will serve an additional purpose, as 
gathering together in one place for the student all the books that he will need to consult 
when investigating the subject in question. The bibliography is followed, finally, by a 
scrupulously prepared index, conveniently subdivided, except for Luca della Robbia, 
according to subjects and places; in the Robbia Heraldry, an index of names of families 
very properly, and, for students of history and heraldry, very usefully, takes the place of 
the index of subjects. 

The entries in the books on America and on heraldry are, of course, repeated in the 
special monographs on the individual sculptors, usually with greater fullness and with 
documentation. Sometimes riper study has brought new points of view, particularly in 
questions of ascription. Whereas, for instance, in the earlier book Professor Marquand 
definitely denies the relief of Adam and Eve in the Walters' Collection, Baltimore, to 
Giovanni della Robbia's own hand, in the subsequent monograph on the master his words 
give the impression that he now is willing to accept this attribution. The ascription of 
the Adoration of the Child in the same collection he discusses in the early volume with 
that admirable circumspection of language which, as an honest scholar, he adopts through- 
out the series when he himself is doubtful and feels that a categorical statement as to 
authorship is not justified; but one can read between the lines that he would not be loath 
to declare for the actual execution of Andrea della Robbia. When, however, he comes in 
1922 to write of the same relief, he has decided to relegate it to the volume on Andrea's 
atelier. A decade ago he says of the Lamentation at Fenway Court, Boston: "We have 
no difficulty in recognizing the handiwork of Giovanni della Robbia ... It seems 
probable that someone from Giovanni's atelier assisted him in the execution of the Boston 
altarpiece; " by 1920 he has become more specific: "The central group is doubtless by 
Giovanni's own hand . . . The framework was probably left to an assistant . . . 
So was doubtless the background." A case of a correction of another kind is supplied by 
the Adoration of the ateHer of Andrea della Robbia, No. 71 of the Bargello, Florence. In 
Robbia Heraldry Professor Marquand refers this relief to the marriage of a Ghislieri with a 
lady of the Martini dell' Ala family, suggesting, however, in parenthesis that she m.ay 
rather have belonged to the Landi; in the volume on the atelier of Andrea he definitely 
identifies her with Agnoletta Landi and now gives her as husband Branatio di Giovanni 
di Piero Campagno. The shghtness of these changes, however, and the surprisingly few 
instances in which the author has found it necessary to make any alterations of attributions 
whatsoever are witness to the judicious care with which he has weighed his conclusions in 
the first place before committing them to print. 

44 The College Art Association of America 

The other general virtues of these books are such that they might well be placed as 
models in the hands of students who are training themselves in the improved modern 
methods for the investigation of the fine arts. Too much stress cannot be laid upon the 
extent to which explanatory docimients are introduced and the acuteness with which they 
are interpreted. For the discovery of a very large number of documents Professor 
Marquand is indebted to the enlightened assistance of Mr. Rufus G. Mather in Italy, and 
all readers will join in the hearty tributes of gratitude that the author renders to Mr. 
Mather's unflagging research and enthusiasm. Reliance upon documents, however, can 
be overdone. The student will receive this important caution not only from the instances 
in which Professor Marquand has been obliged to control the evidence from the records 
but from his own explicit statements in the introduction to the Andrea Delia Robbia.^ 
Even documents may err in names and dates, and the head of the workshop himself may 
be down in black and white as having received payment for a commission the execution of 
which he left to his assistants. Two typical instances may serve to illustrate the way in 
which written statements must be harmonized with stylistic testimony. In a document 
of 1496 Andrea della Robbia is declared to have been paid for the lunette of St. Zenobius 
and two angels now in the Opera del Duomo, Florence, but Professor Marquand believes 
that the workmanship is rather that of his ateher. A more delicate problem is involved in 
the attribution of the Nativity in the chapel of the Sacrament in the cathedral of Massa- 
Carrara. A lost document of 1508, published by Campori, introduces Benedetto Buglioni 
as obtaining remuneration for two altarpieces in this church, which have hitherto been 
considered to be the Nativity and an Epiphany which was sold out of Italy in the early 
nineteenth century and has disappeared. Professor Marquand,^ however, by decisively 
rejecting the Nativity, on styhstic grounds, from the canon of Benedetto Bughoni and by 
not even assigning it to one of his assistants but rather to the atelier of Andrea della Robbia, 
forces us to believe that the two productions of Buglioni at Massa, whatever were their 
themes, have strayed from their original position to an unknown resting-place. 

The author is so thoroughly conversant with all aspects of the Italian Renaissance 
that the entries are stocked with valuable and often recondite historical information. 
The discussions of the donors are particularly illuminating. None of these facts are 
irrelevant but are brought into connection with the principal purpose of the writer, the 
critical interpretation of each work of art. The conclusions are frequently reached with 
much acumen. The escutcheons, for instance, on the altarpiece in the Kaiser-Friedrich 
Museum at Berlin, representing the Virgin between Sts. Francis and Cosmas, prove that 
the commission was given to Andrea della Robbia by a member of the Florentine family 
of the Sassetti. On the basis of the two patron saints who are introduced, it is rightly 
argued that the altarpiece might well be a thank offering of that fosterer of the arts, 
Francesco Sassetti, for the birth of his son, Cosimo; and at this point some apposite data 
are presented in regard to the activity of the Sassetti, who so ably seconded the Medici. 
To take other examples from the Andrea della Robbia, which, as the latest book in the series, 
perhaps calls for more extended notice, the discussion of the great Crucifixion at La Verna 
leads to an indication of the connection of the Alessandri with this shrine, and the illumi- 
nating treatment of the decoration of the Ospedale di S. Paolo at Florence involves an 
interesting paragraph on its governor, Benino dei Benini. Often the author is able to 
relate objects to important marriages, as, in the Luca della Robbia, two lovely escutcheons 
in the Serristori Palace, Florence, to the union of a Maddalena of that family with Jacopo 

'p. xiv. 

'Buglioni, p. 87; Andrea della Robbia, II, p. 107. 

The Art Bulletin 45 

dei Pazzi. In his useful account of this prominent Florentine gentleman, he finds it 
possible to limit the date of these coats of arms to a period between 1446, when the mar- 
riage took place, and 1478, when Jacopo perished in the conspiracy that bears his name, 
and with high probability to assign them definitely to shortly after 1453, since it was in 
this year that Jacopo was made a member of the Order of the Crescent and since it was 
just at this time that Luca was working for him in the embellishment of the Pazzi Chapel. 
It is not seldom that historical information is thus neatly called into service in order to date 
an object. Since the escutcheon on the Madonna in the castle of Lari displays the arms 
of the Segni family and since Alessandro di Piero di Mariotto Segni was Vicar here in 1524 
and 1525, it must have been made at this time, with the further important consequence 
that it can scarcely be ascribed to the workshop under Andrea, who died a very old man in 
1525, but rather to the administration of his son, Giovanni. Andrea's medallion of a 
youth in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, is assigned to about 1475, because the 
surrounding wreath is very similar to that employed at S. Giovanni in Valdarno for the 
coat of arms of Antonio di Lorenzo Buondelmonti, which is accompanied by an inscription 
stating that he was Vicar in this year. The comparison of the two wreaths suggests another 
virtue of the series. At the logical places groupings of similar compositions by the same 
master; especially of his treatment of the Virgin and Child, are made in such a way as to 
assist in the determination of chronology and to facilitate the reader's acquisition of 
knowledge. The most notable example of such classification occurs in the volume on 
Andrea's atelier, the elaborate catalogue, with seventeen subdivisions, of the Adorations 
derived from the altarpiece at La Verna. 

The precision of Professor Marquand's scholarship demands a few illustrations. 
The passage in which he revindicates for Andrea della Robbia the Madonna and Angels 
over the entrance to the Badia at Florence exemplifies the pains that he spends upon 
questions of attribution.' A touch of a peculiarly modern sweetness in the heads certainly 
does arouse in the reviewer, at first glance, the shadow of a suspicion that this lunette 
might be as modern as its frame; but by an examination of its history, the quality of the 
glaze, and the nature of the blue of the background. Professor Marquand succeeds in 
establishing that the doubt is not justified; by a comparison of blues, a study of the types 
of angels, and a realization of the influence of Luca upon the treatment of the Virgin and 
Child, he refutes the long line of critics who, since Milanesi, have championed an ascription 
to Benedetto Buglioni. With a similar elaborate accumulation of evidence he abandons 
his own earlier belief in Luca as the author of the tondo of the Nativity in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum and assigns both frame and relief to Andrea's workshop. The frames 
themselves receive an attention which, until one comprehends their archaeological and 
aesthetic importance, would seem inordinate. All their aspects that have any significance 
are stressed — the varying nature of the ornament, the contrast of Luca's free disposition of 
flowers, foliage, and fruit with Andrea's more symmetrical and Giovanni's more disorderly 
garlands, the questions of authenticity, of the disturbing of an original arrangement, and 
of adjustment to the general composition of the monument. Even the eyes are called 
upon to supply their testimony, pointing to Luca if blue, to Andrea if hazel, and to Giovanni 
if brown or black; and the position of the Child to the right or left (from the spectator's 
standpoint) when grouped with the Virgin is used as a method for ascription to Luca or 
Andrea respectively. Professor Marquand rightly is not so afraid of the slur of pedantry, 
that is easily flung by the superficial and unthinking, as to disdain the evidence of 

^Andrea della Robbia, I, pp. 56-57. 

46 The College Art Association of America 

minutiae. In the volume on heraldry he makes much of the quality of the lettering and 
of the kind of punctuation in the inscriptions as guides to attributions; and in the last 
sentence of the introduction he defends such criticism and provides a good text for the 
scientific investigator of art, when he says: "The student who overiooks them will have 
no sense of the value of little things." Occasionally the reader, perhaps through his own 
perversity, chafes under the author's unremitting circumspection. One could wish, for 
instance, that in the book on the Buglioni he had more often ventured to distinguish the 
hands of Benedetto and Santi themselves from those of their followers.' 

His scrupulousness, however, has not closed his mind to the larger issues. One is 
only a means to the other. He himself points out that the modes of lettering in inscrip- 
tions are indexes to characteristics of broader interest, the "independence and originality" 
of Luca, the "grace and refinement" of Andrea, the "commonplace ideals" of Giovanni." 
The volumes, and particularly the all too brief introductions, are crammed with such keen 
and illuminating observations not only on the Delia Robbia but on the art of the 
Renaissance in general as to justify the hope that Professor Marquand will eventually 
bring together all this material and write a synthetic book on the whole history of the Delia 
Robbia ware, its various exponents, their styles, achievements, and relations to their times. 
Examples of these generalizing sentences and passages may be selected almost at random, 
for instance, in the Andrea delta Robbia, the concise and original simimary of the master's 
characteristics, especially his predilection for asymmetry,' the observations in regard to 
his inclination to render iconography more formal and ritualistic,* and the indication of 
the influence of Mino da Fiesole.* The manner in which not seldom he broadens his 
outlook still further may be illustrated by a sentence in Delia Robbias in America^ upon 
the tendency in the sculpture of the end of the Quattrocento to enlarge and simplify 
compositions and, in the Andrea delta Robbia, by the contrasting of the domination of 
Florentine artistic activity by architects in the first half of the fifteenth century with the 
ascendancy of sculptors and painters in the second half.' 

Every page of the series contains noteworthy contributions to the knowledge and 
interpretation of the Delia Robbia, so that the reviewer can do little more than set down 
a few of the conclusions in each volume that have impressed him as more peculiarly novel 
and important. In Delta Robbias in America it is convincingly maintained that the 
puzzhng bust of Marietta Strozzi at Fenway Court, Boston, was neither modelled by 
Desiderio da Settignano nor glazed by Luca della Robbia. Among the most memorable 
features of the book on Luca are: the refutation, on chronological grounds, of a training 
with the goldsmith Leonardo di Ser Giovanni and of Donatello's influence upon the 
Singing Gallery and the relief of the Philosophers on the Campanile;' a mass of cogent 
evidence to support the attribution of the great Visitation at Pistoia to Luca, particularly 

'Now and then the proof-reading leaves something to be desired. In line 11 of page 17 of Robbia Heraldry, for 
instance, same is left for seme; towards the top of page 124 of Andrea della Robbia a fine has dropped out. On page 
164 of the same volume the Jesuits are spoken of as building a church in 1464, almost three quarters of a century 
before the Order came into existence; the reference should evidently be to the Jesuates, founded by St. John Colom- 
bini. On page 81 of the volume on Andrea's atelier, the Spanish sculptor Bartolom^ Ordonez appears as Bar- 
tolome Ondonez; and on page 145, in the discussion of the standing Madonna at Trapani, it would have been 
well to mention the very evident influence of the type of Virgin evolved in Sicily by the Laurana and Gagini workshops. 

'Robbia Heraldry, p. xvii. 

'p. xvii. 

*p. 95. 

*pp. 34 and 50. 

«p. 54. 

'p. xvi. 

'pp. xxvii-xxviii. 

The Art Bulletin 47 

the consideration that it was already in the church of S. Giovanni Fuorcivitas in 1445 
when Andrea was only ten years old; the addition of the Adoration and the Madonna at 
Wellington, Somerset, England, to the number of the master's works; the demonstration 
of the fact that Luca anticipated Andrea's extension of glazed terracotta to large altarpieces 
in at least one monument, the example at Pescia; the exclusion of both Brunelleschi and 
Luca from participation in the Evangelists of the pendentives of the Pazzi Chapel; and 
the rejection of the much discussed unglazed reliefs of the Madonna and Angels' from the 
canon of Luca. The book on heraldry not only commends itself to the lover of art for the 
beauty of the objects which it describes, to the archaeologist for the assistance that it 
renders him in the dating of monuments, and to the historian for the fund of information 
that it contains; but our most distinguished American heraldist, Mr. Pierre la Rose, has 
admitted to the reviewer that even he has found it of value in the pursuit of his science 
and that Professor Marquand's knowledge of heraldry is adequate to the purpose of the 
volume. This is much from a luminary of that branch of erudition the exponents of which 
are traditionally the most captious of critics. The Giovanni della Robbia the reviewer 
has discussed at length in another place;" here it is necessary only to allude once more to 
the new stress upon the influence of Verrocchio and, above all, to the great achievement of 
solving the hard problems that hitherto had surrounded the attribution of the reliefs on 
the portico of the Ospedale del Ceppo at Pistoia. The five medallions and the four half- 
medallions containing escutcheons and scenes from the life of the Virgin are proved to 
have come from Giovanni's hand. The more significant part of the decoration, the frieze 
of the Works of Mercy, are definitively assigned, in the volume on the Buglioni, to Santi 
Buglioni, with the exception of the panel depicting the giving of drink to the thirsty, which 
may have been executed by Filippo Paladini. The most momentous result of the research 
on the Buglioni is the demonstration of the fact that at least one other bottega, besides 
that of the Della Robbia, produced works in glazed terracotta at the end of the fifteenth 
and in the sixteenth century. The indebtedness of Benedetto Buglioni to Antonio 
Rossellino is emphasized, and the corpus of his works is increased by a number of new 
attributions, one of the most interesting of which is the statue of the dead St. Christina, 
with its haunting beauty, in the Collegiata at Bolsena. The Andrea della Robbia repre- 
sents the maturity of the author's scholarship. In addition to the allusions already made 
to this book, it should finally be noted that it has corrected certain erroneous impressions 
that have detracted somewhat from Andrea's reputation. The entries on pages 107 and 
148 prove that Andrea was not confined to the medium of glazed terracotta, and the removal 
of many productions, such as the London Epiphany, from the catalogue of his authentic 
works tends to absolve him of the accusation of having perverted the medium into a 
highly pictorial use. One is gratified also to discover the emphasis upon the often neglected 
fact that, of the fourteen Infants on the Loggia degli Innocenti at Florence, the two pairs 
at the two ends are modern. 

It is hard to exhaust, in a review, the many aspects in which these volumes appeal to 
the interest of the intelligent pubUc. Inasmuch as the production of the Della Robbia 
stretched from the beginning to the end of the Italian Renaissance, the series of books 
forms a kind of microcosm of the whole aesthetic development of the period. We find 
mirrored here the strenuous simplicity of the early Quattrocento in the person of Luca 
della Robbia, the conscious and more sophisticated achievement of the second half of the 
century in Andrea della Robbia and Benedetto Buglioni, the transition to the classicism 

ipp. 228-231. 

'The Literary Review, N. Y. Evening Post, February 19, 1921. 

48 The College Aet Association or Ameeica 

of the Cinquecento in Giovanni della Robbia and Santi Buglioni. Since the influences of 
many other artists played, in a greater or less degree, upon all these sculptors and since 
Professor Marquand never fails to discern the cases in which they are beholden to their 
contemporaries, the picture of the Renaissance afforded by the monographs is vastly 
broadened. They gain in significance, for us, in that they were written by an American 
and constitute a monumental addition to the important and rapidly increasing contribution 
of our country to the study of the fine arts. It has already been earnestly suggested that 
Professor Marquand now compose a general synthetic book on the Della Robbia; at least 
he has promised to bring the present series to absolute completion with a volume on 
Giovanni's brothers. 

Chandler R. Post 

Iranians and Greeks in South Russia. By M. Rostovtzeff. xvi + 260 pp.. 32 pls. Oxford, Clarendon 

Press, 1922. 35 Shillings. 

Professor Rostovtzeff, the learned Russian scholar, formerly of the University of 
Petrograd, has long been recognized as one of the leading authorities in Classical 
archaeology and history, and especially in the ancient history of Russia and Asia Minor. 
His numerous articles and books have made some exceedingly valuable and original 
contributions, but unfortunately for us several of his writings have been published only in 
Russian. But now that he is professor of ancient history in the University of Wisconsin, 
he is publishing many an article in English; and the book under review though repeating 
material already published in Russian, is especially welcome to Americans, to many of 
whom much of this material has been a closed book. To be sure, Minns has published a 
large volume on Scythians and Greeks, in which a complete survey is given of the material 
illustrating the early history of South Russia and of the views of scholars on the various 
problems of the history and archaeology of South Russia. Professor Rostovtzeff, however, 
tries to go further and give a history of the South Russian lands in the prehistoric, the 
proto-historic, and the Classic periods down to the epoch of the migrations. He defines 
the part played by South Russia in the history of the world in general, and emphasizes the 
contributions of South Russia to the civilization of mankind, using especially the rich 
archaeological evidence furnished by excavations in South Russia. Archaeology is a 
source of historical information, sometimes even more important than the written sources, 
and Professor Rostovtzeff has shown perhaps better than any other living professor of 
ancient history how to write history with the help of archaeology. His results cannot be 
considered final, since we still know so little of the history and archaeology of Central 
Asia and of the Iranian world. The exploration of the Caucasian lands and of the upper 
course of the Euphrates is in its infancy, but Professor Rostovtzeff has blazed a wide 
trail by showing the importance of the connections with Asia Minor for the development of 
South Russia, and the importance of South Russia for understanding the main features 
of the civilization of these lands during the rule of the Scythians and of the Sarmatians of 
the South Russian steppes. Professor Rostovtzeff, while not denying the Greek influences, 
maintains that South Russia always has remained an Oriental land. Hellenism met 
Orientalism there but the Oriental stream was the stronger and spread thence all over 
Western Europe. 

"The attempt to Hellenize the South Russian steppes was not a complete success; much more successful was the 
attempt to orientalize the semi-Greek world of the northern shores of the Black Sea. In the civilization which the 
Sarmatians, the Goths, the Huns, brought with them to Western Europe it is the Orient which plays the leading 
part; the Greek, the Western, and the Northern elements are of but secondary importance."